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An Inclusive Account of American History
UNIT 1 ANCIENT AFRICA
This foundational unit engages students in the rich history of African tribes, customs, traditions, languages, and cultures. In fact, many of these customs and practices are instrumental in forming modern processes and conventions practiced within Black American cultures and subcultures. The mere notion that Black History started with enslavement is eliminated when students understand the genius of ancient Africans.
CHAPTER 1: HOW AFRICA GOT ITS NAME
Sankofa reminds us that we must go back to our roots in order to move forward. This chapter communicates, with clarity, the importance of reaching back individually and collectively to gather the best that our past has to teach us, so that we can achieve our full potential individually and as a whole. We trace Africa back to the beginning of humanity, stepping back in time to capture a glimpse of the ingenuity, productivity, creativity and nobility of ancient Africans. Africa is authentic, colorful and historical. It is not monolithic, but it is immensely unique and diverse. Africa truly is the cradle of civilization.
CHAPTER 2: ANCIENT AFRICAN CIVILIZATIONS
Enhanced understanding of ancient African civilizations continues; the awesome legacy of a mighty people reveals itself. In providing a careful examination of the achievements of generations long past, new insight is gained that is useful today:
Ancient Africa has a rich repository of creativity, intellect and innovation.
The celebrated heritage, as documented by world historical and cultural organizations, establishes justifiable pride in individuals of African descent.
UNIT 2 THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Filled with details of, the so-called, Transatlantic Slave Trade, this unit explores the conditions that influenced the trading of natural resources, weapons, and people of African descendants. The profit motive eventually leads to arguably the largest human trafficking period in recorded history. It contains historical verification from countries involved in the Transatlantic Trade, along with steps that ultimately lead to the end of the trade.
CHAPTER 3: THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE AND TRIBES
This chapter explains the dynamics and interactions of tribes among themselves, before the start of European Trade, and afterwards. The chapter also carefully explores:
The role warfare and seeking material gain and power between tribes played in the capturing of local people within Africa.
How laws and policies of European governments and the United States impacted the operations of the Trade.
CHAPTER 4: END OF ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
This Chapter discusses the myriad of reasons why the profitable practice of kidnapping African endured for so long:
How laws and actual business practices extended the trading of enslaved peoples well beyond its legal termination.
An examination of some of the ways in which captured Africans fought with every creative weapon they could muster against their transporters.
UNIT 3 THE AMERICAN SYSTEM THE FORMING THEREOF
The American System discusses the beginnings of American systematic oppression, racial and economic disparity. The discrimination, and dominant-culture supremacy was facilitated through the enslavement and persecution of Blacks in the United States.
CHAPTER 5: ENSLAVEMENT THE PECULIAR INSTITUTION
A hard look at the financial calculations and operations of those who enslaved individuals from Africa is impartially examined. Carefully detailed research uncovers information on the groupings of the enslaved by gender, and for- profit potential:
Valuing young men, young women, teens and pre-teens by common calculations.
How sex trafficking evolved as a special and profitable niche across state lines.
CHAPTER 6: AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865
When the compromises and juggling of differences between the North and the South came to a boil, the result was the American Civil War. Chapter 6 examines the varying opinions about the war before, during and after the fighting ended:
The unexpected length, cost and deadliness of the war for both the North and the South.
How and why President Lincoln made the decision to end the War.
The use of Black soldiers and civilians in the war.
UNIT 4 EMANCIPATION & RECONSTRUCTION
The Civil War, along with the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, marked the beginning of efforts to end legalized enslavement in the United States. This unit analyzes the critical events leading to the emancipation of the enslaved, and the subsequent conflicts between Confederate and Union States after the war ended. A perilous and often dangerous period occurred in the era immediately after the War. These activities and policies became known as Reconstruction.
CHAPTER 7: AFTER THE CIVIL WAR RECONSTRUCTION, 1866 1877
The exact ways to rebuild the nation after the war was no easy task. Basic issue on how to handle matters related to the new freedmen required new methods and systems. The major steps employed are revealed:
The establishment of the Freedmen s Bureau and support from religious organizations.
New laws and amendments to the Constitution.
Self-help efforts and cooperative steps by the freedmen themselves.
CHAPTER 8: NO FREE LUNCH & FIGHTING FOR JUSTICE & FREEDOM
Former Confederate soldiers begin a reign of terror to regain power:
The explanation of the role White supremacist violence and threats played in ending Black political participation, Black voting rights and their ability to maintain economic independence.
Legal schemes and processes to return the formerly enslaved to agrarian life.
CHAPTER 9: POST RECONSTRUCTION TRANSITION TO A NEW CENTURY
As the freedmen of the South sought to gain a measure of independence, Black people began organizing themselves to improve their lives. A concerted effort was made to end the post-war terror of the South and to stop wide-spread lynching(s):
The role played by Black leaders, such as W.E.B. DuBois with the founding of the all Black Niagara Movement in 1905, which later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
The impact of race riots that occurred in many states across the nation.
CHAPTER 10: POST-RECONSTRUCTION
This chapter details the reality of Black life in America after the end of Reconstruction. The return of Southern leaders to power brought immediate negative consequences. Black people sought to counter these attacks by engaging in the following strategies:
The promotion of self-help, industrial training advocated by Booker T. Washington.
A national and international Black pride and unifying promoted by Marcus Garvey.
UNIT 5 THE GREAT MIGRATION AND ITS AFTERMATH
Filled with photographic images of American involvement, this Unit investigates Black Liberation & Expression through the development of Black-oriented institutions, Black-inspired art (including the Harlem Renaissance), and the long-ranging modulation of Black voices.
CHAPTER 11: THE TIDAL WAVE BLACK MIGRATION, NORTHWARD
A massive migration occurred within the borders of the United States over six million Blacks moved to urban areas of the North in a relatively short period of time:
Pushing Black people out of the South due to flagrant acts of racist violence and Jim Crow practices.
Pulling Black Americans out of the South to accept new positions largely opened by the labor needs of World War 1.
CHAPTER 12: DEMOCRACY: POSSIBILITY OR MYTH
Exploring the massive changes to the country that occurred with the United States entry into World War I. Black Americans were negatively affected by the election of President Woodrow Wilson:
Extensive examination of the political, economic and social changes fueled by the mass migration of Black Americans.
Growing tension caused by racist violent attacks. An example is the growth of Black-face travel shows and the new movie industry and its first full length provocative film, The Birth of a Nation, is discussed.
CHAPTER 13: STANDING UP
Leaders were developing alternative measures to gain freedom. These business pioneers were utilizing their faith, talents, and abilities to provide examples of building an economic legacy for themselves and their communities:
Black visionaries inspired and encouraged others to dream.
Reviewing the buy-Black position of Marcus Garvey.
CHAPTER 14: THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
Despite racial turmoil and unrest in the North and South, the music of Black Americans found its way on the world stage during and after the Harlem Renaissance:
This era showcased artistic creativity, poetry and musical talent.
World-wide, the music, dance, and art found in the originality and freshness of Black Americans musicians, artist and poets is made apparent.
CHAPTER 15: THE BLACK CHURCH AS AN INSTITUTIONAL BASE OF THE COMMUNITY
There are more Black churches in America than any other institution. Its leaders have had a broad impact in community development and the founding of HBCUs, along with forming a core of the key political and civic leaders. The post-Civil War and Reconstruction Era produced a free people, more churches built than at any other time in American history, and a Black Church foundation that is the spiritual heart of Black America still beating strong today.
UNIT 6 CIVIL RIGHTS & AMERICAN JUSTICE
This unit provides an unfiltered look into the Civil Rights era. It was a period of severe unrest. The organized bigotry, inequitable treatment (egregiously normalized attitudes and behaviors against Black Americans) would not be easy to dismantle. The laws and customs of a society built on inequality were deeply entrenched. In addition, the lingering policies of Jim Crow, the assassination of Black leaders and racist legal practices would put the country to the test.
Chapter 16: WINNING EQUAL RIGHTS
The legacy of post reconstruction violence, flagrant legal injustices and humiliations of the Jim Crow era gave rise to the Civil Rights Movement. This chapter assesses how the birth of the civil rights struggle began and how it quickly impacted the entire nation:
The role of governmental practices on the federal, state and local level which gave birth to the demand for civil rights and equal justice.
A look at the landmark social issues that sparked the civil rights era.
Chapter 17: THE CHILDREN S CRUSADE WE TAKE IT TO THE STREETS
No segment of society held a greater stake in attempting to end racist violence and oppression than the youth of America. While striving for justice, they were willing to face possible imprisonment: The impact of Black American youth in the Civil Rights Movement.
CHAPTER 18: RACIAL TENSION CONTINUES
As the frustration and violence of the Civil Rights Movement took its toll, new and different ideas and approaches to winning justice and freedom emerged. This chapter examines some of these new thought leaders and the organizations that ultimately emerged:
Social justice by other means; the rise of a wide range of Black freedom organizations and the rise of federal government infiltration tactics.
The remarkable struggles, sacrifices, courage, of activists ranging from Fred Shuttlesworth and Fannie Lou Hamer to Medgar Evers and Rosa Parks.
CHAPTER 19: VALIANT WOMEN
The brave actions of Black leaders and thousands of people who worked for justice during the Civil Rights era are not limited to Black men. Many of the trench warriors are unknown and unsung Black females:
The unique challenges and contributions of historical and contemporary Black female freedom fighters, publicly and behind the scenes The sterilization of many poor Black women in southern states, including Fannie Lou Hamer.
UNIT 7 THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM
The financial impact of enslavement and the less well-known effect of Black economic exploitation in the modern economic system are explored. This unit uncovers hard evidence of multigenerational economic benefits and penalties of sustained financial exploitation, with wide implication up to the present time.
CHAPTER 20: ECONOMY, POLICY, AND MORALITY
Following the money is the theme of this chapter. It takes an objective look at economic practices in a pragmatic manner:
The effects of enslaved profits in the development of the modern industrial era.
Exploiting Black labor to rebuild the industrial South, and to provide free or cheap labor in building the early roads and highway systems throughout America.
CHAPTER 21: CONVICT LABOR
The Industrial Revolution in the North was aided primarily by the prolonged enslavement of Blacks in the South. This chapter checks into several areas of unfair labor practices across many states:
Building rail and highway systems needed for more efficiency in moving products to consumers.
The wide-spread use of chain gains to obtain free labor from a mostly Black male population pool.
CHAPTER 22: INCOME VS. WEALTH BUILDING
Economic education as a path to greater individual and collective freedom is addressed. Here we provide examples of real-world financial heroes that embraced the vision, accepted the challenge and made things happen:
Fascinating insight into the historic and on-going challenges of the nation s 101 Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the United States
A frank look at the spending habits of Black Americans and the need to improve financial literacy, coupled with new wealth-building habits and strategies devoid of the sensationalism and influence of target marketing.
CHAPTER 23: BLACK SOLUTIONISTS
We examine the humble beginnings and remarkable success of four Black entrepreneurs, who have demonstrated the importance of having a vision and the tools for overcoming obstacles:
Reginald F. Lewis.
Annie Turnbo Malone.
CHAPTER 24: NOTIONS OF A POST-RACIAL SOCIETY
This chapter investigates the documented predictions of a Black president decades prior to the election of Barack Obama in 2008. Once Barack became President of the United States, some people began to claim that America was now a post-racial nation:
Looking at the political, social and economic realities of Black America.
President Obama s own assessment of the importance of his election and if it would usher in a racism-free society. His presidency signaled a new era in America and this chapter examines what some social commentators have claimed that because America has elected a Black President it proves that we are now living in a post-racial nation.
UNIT 8 POP CULTURE & BLACK WEALTH
This unit reviews positive and negative image of pop culture and Black wealth.
CHAPTER 25: SPIRITUAL EXPRESSIONS FROM THE SOUL
All Americans, and now the world, have tasted the fruits of Black cultural expressions. The originality and admiration of the arts expressed through Black music and literature started in earnest with the Harlem Renaissance more than 100 years ago. The impact continues today:
The role of books and films in sharing the Black experience, from little known productions, to internationally acclaimed television series such as Roots
Tracing the legacy of African heritage music from enslavement to the present.
CHAPTER 26: POP MUSIC EXPLOSION
Shortly after the Civil War, Negro Spirituals won popularity primarily through HBCU choirs, such as the Jubilee Singers raising funds for Fisk University. From that time until the present, national and international support for the originality and beauty of Black music has expanded. The financial growth of the music industry is explored:
Mass appeal of pop music and the role of Black musicians and singers as early at the turn of the 20th century.
How Black culture has influenced all genres of music.
CHAPTR 27: BLACK ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRYS IMPACT
Entertainment is a broad term which describes anything that generates attention and pleasure for the observer or listener. Black entertainers and athletes have played a major role in American society:
The social and financial impact of media icons such as Oprah Winfrey, Michael Jordan, and Michael Jackson
The broad influence of Black entertainers as marketing wizards, influencing the spending of youth and adults of all races, internationally.
CHAPTER 28: THE DIVINE NINE
The historic role of Black Greek organizations is highlighted. Despite overt acts of discrimination on White
college s campuses and the patronizing tone of many White college presidents of HBCUs, these groups found a sense of belonging on college campuses and within the Black community:
Overcoming discrimination and limited academic resources to excel.
Emphasis on being service-oriented, while exemplifying leadership, brotherhood/sisterhood and academic excellence.
CHAPTER 29: CONTRIBUTIONS OF BLACK MEN IN SPORTS
Historically Black Americans had to fight their way through prejudice and unfair practices to gain their deserved place in sports. When the enormity of their hard work and talent could no longer be denied, and they were given the opportunity, Black American athletes thrived:
The legacy of those who have gone before, paving the way for Black athletics of today in both traditional and non-traditional sports.
The impact on social norms and values by Black athletics in all major sports, with a related major influence on consumer marketing and the spending habits of all Americans.
CHAPTER 30: INTEGRATION OF THE NBA
Historians agree that basketball is a unique game, in that it was invented by a specific person and was first played at a certain geographical site. The fast popularity of the game has won millions of fans across the globe:
The role of Black athletes and the roots of the NBA roots are analyzed.
The first Black player to sign an NBA contract and the modern influence on College basketball affecting hundreds of American schools.
CHAPTER 31: BLACK QUARTERBACKS
The number of Black athletes playing college and professional football has been increasing. Their expanding numbers and notable achievements are recorded. Black players make up the largest percentage of pro football players. Nearly 70% of all NFL players today are Black, yet they are not immune to racial slurs and discrimination:
Black players report facing obstacles in securing the position of quarterback in professional football for various reasons, including racial bias and stereotyping.
Black quarterbacks who have made mistakes both on and off the field face harsher criticism in the media and by fans.
CHAPTER 32: CONTRIBUTIONS OF BLACK WOMEN IN SPORTS
Black women have made their mark in sports. Like their male counterparts, they have confronted and have overcome discrimination.
International fame and product endorsements through hard work and dedication.
UNIT 9 THE LONE STAR STATE: TEXAS
The rich history of its diverse people, coupled with the bountiful beauty of its natural geography, is the reason the Lone Star State rivals any spot on earth as a place in pure majesty.
The resilient people of the Lone Star State have demonstrated to the world that they are unstoppable by any
challenge. Today, Texas has been rediscovered by the nation; consequently, it is now experiencing one of the highest population-increases in America.
CHAPTER 33: THE IMPACT BLACKS HAVE HAD ON TEXAS
Early Black inhabitants were motivated by a desire for freedom and economic opportunities. Many Blacks who currently reside in Texas had ancestors who were kidnapped and brought to the region. Topics for this chapter include:
Contributions of Black people to the US Western Expansion.
The development and expansion of the Texas economy and enslaved labor and role of Black soldiers in the Civil War.
The role of Black cowboys and farm ranch hands in Texas.
Post enslavement and reconstruction and the celebration of Juneteenth originated in Texas.
Black and Brown Texans collaborating and cooperating for Civil Rights and justice.
Black Texans blazing new ground in civil rights.
CHAPTER 34: THE STRUGGLE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS IN DALLAS
The Civil Rights Movement in Dallas was a social and political grassroots struggle. Its goal was like those of the Civil Rights movement in the rest of the country, but with some distinctions. The aim was still to achieve equal and fair treatment for Black Texans. The foundation of the movement was a determined and heart-felt effort of Black Texans themselves to obtain their full constitutional, legal, and human rights. Elements of their valiant efforts and consistent hard work are:
Origins of the Civil Rights Movement and its emergence from the Reconstruction Era, transitioning through the Jim Crow era, and ultimately up to civil disobedience.
The effect of unified social protest movements gave way to progress for Black Texans.
CHAPTER 35: FORT WORTH: WHERE THE WEST AND THE SOUTH MEET
The political structure of Fort Worth has historically been controlled by Whites. Yet, a courageous number of Black people in the area stood and fought for freedom and economic opportunities:
Organizing and fighting for freedom and justice.
Building self-help programs and practices in education, economics and politics.
The Jim Crow system began to break down after World War II.
Entrepreneurship in Fort Worth, defeating the odds and serving each other.
Unit 10 THE NORTH STAR: The Remarkable Canadian Connection
In this unit we observe the similarities between American and Canadian Blacks. Because of the horrific nature of enslavement and the so-called Fugitive Slave Laws, Black people are embedded in the history and development of our large and prosperous neighbor to the north.
CHAPTER 36: NARRATIVES OF EX-ENSLAVED BLACKS IN CANADA
Aboriginal peoples were the earliest inhabitants of the land that ultimately became known as Canada. However, as many Black people escaped enslavement and moved north, Canada also became their home. The first Black
inhabitants in Canada are traced to around the early 1600 s. The Black citizens who arrived later are primarily in Canada, because of its geographical closeness. This chapter examines a number of the perspectives on the benefits, issues and challenges Blacks experienced in Canada including, but not limited to, the following:
Free and enslaved Blacks who fled from the United States after the American Revolution.
Enslavement and oppression in Canada-- unique features and characteristics
Early Black settlements that later became community developments throughout Canada.
Black independence and economic opportunities, self-help organizations and political empowerment.
CHAPTER 37: CANADA'S BLACK SETTLEMENTS: FOLLOWING THE NORTH STAR FROM ENSLAVEMENT TO FREEDOM
The initial impetus for more Blacks in the United States to make the longer, harder trek to the Canadian border was the passage of the, so-called, Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. While a relatively small number of enslaved people were freed via the Underground Railway, it did provide support for those who made it to many of the northern states. The second event that pushed Black people northward in large numbers was the outbreak of the American Civil War.
Many other key factors played a role in the Black Canadian movement and settlement:
Calibrations with Aboriginals to find trails leading north.
Black people who arrived in Canada with Colonial British Loyalists fleeing to Canada.
Assistance from some local religious groups, such as the Quakers.
The establishment of Black Settlement groups by local and new residents.
AFRICAN CANADIAN TIMELINE: A Roads to Freedom Resource
Roads to Freedom has provided a timeline chronicling an overview of Black History in Canada from 1492 to our modern era. The timeline provides a comprehensive synopsis of notable American and Canadian people, communities and major events over hundreds of years, which finally resulted in stable Black communities in Canada with their own rich narratives.
Full of rarely told history lessons and images of original documents and artifacts, Black History 365 takes students, parents, and educators on a colorful journey embracing an inclusive account of American history. This interactive textbook includes:
Curriculum planning guides
Family engagements and restorative activities
BH365 can be used as a core or supplemental textbook:
Meets and exceeds standards set by Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
Includes Texas Black History
Includes important connections to Canadian Black History via the Underground Railroad
QR codes throughout the textbook for digital engagement
Multi-platinum, Grammy award-winning producer creates BH365 music opening each Unit
Each chapter has many student-engaging side bars in each Unit
This relevant and necessary textbook is available for:
African American study courses
American History courses
Extended learning opportunities
Student-led rules of engagement are integrated throughout the textbook because the Elephant Experience will invite them to address topics that have vexed our country for centuries. Through our proprietary process students will have the opportunity to become:
Fact-based, respectful communicators as they gain the ability to clearly articulate their positions
Important topics designed to invite students to become critical thinkers:
The Berlin Conference (1884-85)
TruthCentrism, African History and the Afrocentrist/Eurocentrist Debate
The Rosetta Stone and Its Impact on Understanding Ancient Egyptian History
What s So Remarkable about Great Zimbabwe?
Slave Insurance Policies
Did Africans Sell Other Africans Into Slavery?
Belgium s King Leopold II: The Personification of Evil
Willie Lynch Letter: Fact or Fiction?
The Arab/Sub-Saharan Slave Trade
Young America and the Barbary Wars
Zanzibar and the Arab/Sub-Saharan Slave Trade
Enslaved Whites, Barbary Pirates, Europe and the United States
Some of America s First Slaves Were Muslims
African Male Castration, Eunuchs, and the Arab/Sub-Saharan Slave Trade
The Personal Account of a Nigerian Youth Captured by Islamic Fulani Warriors, Who Later Became Bishop of the Niger
The Connection Between Early British and American Abolitionists
Am I Not a Man or a Brother? Am I Not a Woman?
The Brookes Slave Ship
Mother Kills Daughter to Protect Her from Slavery
Three-Fifths of a Human Being
Uncle Tom Revisited
Doctrine of Discovery
Civility in Politics
General Sherman s March to the Sea
The Great Chain of Being and Scientific Racism
Forty Acres and Broken Promises
Reparations: Various Perspectives
The Hayes/Tilden Presidential Election of 1876
The Popular Vote and Electoral College: Is America a Democracy or a Republic?
The Founding Fathers, Slavery and Hypocrisy
Lynching: A Terrible Stain on American History
The Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington
The Debate Between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois
Marian Anderson: Fight, Fight, Fight vs. Letting Character Speak for Itself
Civil War Statues: Leave Them Up or Tear Them Down?
Black Like Me: Can a White Person Truly Ever Understand the Black Experience?
Why is it that the Accomplishments of Black People Are Not as Widely Known as Those of White People?
Which is Better: Slower Justice or Faster Justice?
Scientific Racism: British Idea, American Wealth & Research, and the Mass Application of Eugenics in Nazi Germany
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment and the Mistrust of the American Government
Is the Black Church Still Influential and Relevant?
Notions of a Post-Racial Society
Police and Community Involvement
Taking Back Control of the Black Hair Care & Beauty Industries
Black People and the Deadly Dance with Both American Political Machines
Ernest Withers: The Complex & Mysterious Life of an Iconic Civil Rights Photographer
Last Updated: Tuesday, June 29, 2021