The Israeli military said 20 rockets were fired at its positions in the occupied Golan Heights overnight.
It responded by launching what a spokesman called "one of the broadest aerial operations in recent years".
There was no immediate comment from Iran, whose deployment of troops to Syria to back the government in the country's civil war has alarmed Israel.
Iran has repeatedly called for an end to the existence of the Jewish state.
Israel's military had been anticipating an attack by Iranian forces after reportedly carrying out strikes on their facilities in Syria in recent months. They included one on an airbase in April that killed seven Iranian troops.